The Newport Ship reports

If anyone is interested in 15th century leatherwork, woodwork, or any aspect of maritime construction, the Newport Ship have their Specialist Reports online.

The introduction of the Fabric Specialist Report gives some background of the ship.

In 2002, during the construction of the Riverfront Theatre, on the banks of the River Usk in Newport, South Wales, an archaeological find of great significance was unearthed. In the summer of that year, while undertaking the excavations for the theatre’s orchestra pit, the well-preserved remains of a 15th century clinker built merchant vessel were discovered.

The leather catalogue is at:

Be prepared for turn-welted poleyns, leather pump components and an archer’s bracer (MSG 154 on p90).

Inverness Museum and Art Gallery

Inverness Museum & Art Gallery

Castle Wynd, Inverness, Inverness-shire, IV2 3EB

This was a rather nice small museum and gallery, tucked in at the foot of the castle mound. It manages to fit the whole period from when the earth had just started to cool, through to the week before last into two floors, concentrating on the Highlands. There’s an inevitable Pictish/Celtic slant throughout illustrated with a few quality finds from each location, period and racial grouping of your choice. We spent a wet morning there and managed to identify the snake we’d seen a few days earlier.


Bone pins

Bone dice

Bone die from Urquhart Castle, possibly loaded.

Bone objects from Bernera

Viking sword charm or toy.

Bone objects from Bernera

Shoe toggle and comb plate


Bonnie Prince Charlie dice box
This small copper alloy box with a miniature portrait of Bonnie Prince Charlie, painted in oils on a concealed ‘lid’ hidden beneath the outer kid of the box. It contains three ivory dice.


18th century powder horns

18th century powder horns

18th century powder horns


18th century powder horns


Horn cup 18-19th C

Horn cup with silver rim and mount, Robert Naughten (1786-1857)


Leather shoe sole

Leather shoe sole and reproduction. Castle Street, Inverness

Book binding, first edition Gaelic Bible, Bishop William Bedell. Published 1690
First edition Gaelic Bible, 1690

First edition Gaelic Bible, 1690

First edition Gaelic Bible, 1690

Leather faced Tage

Tage, 18th century, leather on wood with iron nails.

That’s not from armour.

Many of you will know of the UK Portable Antiquities Scheme and its excellent on-line database. I’m an occasional visitor and usually run a simple search on the Primary Material: Leather to see what has been added since my last visit. I did it again last week and this one came up.

Identified as a strap from a piece of armour such as a breast plate which would have been worn in the civil war era.

I’ve linked the picture to the full record for the item. Those of you who know me will be starting to wonder what I’ve done… I’m afraid I’m a repeat offender.  An example is here, but there are plenty of others. I disagree with the identification of the item, and think it is from a late 18th or early 19th century leather bucket. I’ve summarised my case in the comment on the database record but would like to provide some information and examples here that I can’t on that site. Have a good look at the database record, possibly keep it open in another window. Note the curve in the object, the closeness and type of rivets and washers and even the number of layers. The dimensions are relevant, particularly the thickness. I’ll repeat them here.

Length:       33 mm (this doesn’t accord with the scale in the photograph, either)
Width:        25 mm
Thickness: 10 mm

Let’s check the confidence with which the identification was made.

Natasha Ferguson from the Centre for Battlefield Archaeology in Glasgow has seen a photograph of this item and says it is probably a ‘strap from a piece of armour such as a breast plate which would have been worn in the civil war era’.

It is also identified as a “battlefield find”. Note that the identification is from a photograph and is only “probably”. Putting those together, I’m recognising a pattern of  “it is from a battlefield so it must be from armour” much in the same way that any left shoe found is a “ritual object“.

So let’s have a look at some of the leather straps on the types of armour in the period in question. It is a little complex as armour was made in a number of factories in Blighty and lots was left over from previous wars and also imported from Europe in some quantity.  One of the constants is that the leather straps are only one layer of leather thick. The first example is from the York Castle Museum.

Low view from level with the pikeman's left knee would have been, showing the waist belt and the inside of the shoulder straps. Some of the rivets and washers can be seen.

Nowhere does this armour have flat headed rivets or round washers. This one is of English manufacture. Here’s another one of European origin.

Dutch Pikeman's Armour, 1640s

This one is in the Leeds Armouries. Again, the straps aren’t 10mm thick, the rivets all have domed heads and if you look at the inside, the washers are square. The last one is a side view of one in the Dover Museum that was on loan from Leeds.

Side view, English Pike Armour, Dover Museum.

The other forms such as the heavy cuirassier armour follow the same pattern, I won’t bore you further with more armour photos but I do have photos of at least 50 contemporary armours and all follow the same pattern.

Having demonstrated (to my satisfaction anyway) that it isn’t an armour strap, I suppose I should now provide some evidence that it is what I think it is. Have a look at the next couple of photos and make up your own mind.

A modern copy of a water bucket carried on the Victory.

While this is a reproduction, the details are fundamentally correct. Note the spacing of the rivets and the arrangement of the washers. Seen that curve somewhere before?  Here’s another shot of a reproduction from underneath. 

Looking up at one of the Victory's leather buckets.

The sides of the bucket are considerable thinner than the thickness of the base, but it still illustrates my point. If you were to break off the bit with the four rivets to the left of the painted numbers, the piece would be about 25mm high to the crease in the base, about  65mm long and about 8mm thick.

The oldest riveted leather bucket I’ve seen is one dated either 1660 or 1666 in the Museum of London. It is very different in form to the Victory’s, although there are a number the same shape and construction as the Victory’s and dating to the turn of the nineteenth century in antique shops around the world.

I really think the Portable Antiquities Scheme are looking at a later intrusion with this object. The identification from a photograph possible means the context or stratigraphy were absent when the identification was done and too much emphasis may have been placed on it being from a mid-seventeenth century battlefield site. The find was found using a metal detector, meaning reasonably shallow and from ploughed land, leaving plenty of opportunity for later period objects to be mixed in with earlier objects.


McIntosh, F (2009) LVPL-9CD9F4 A POST MEDIEVAL Strap Fitting Webpage available at: [Accessed: 12/12/2010 11:45:00 AM]